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The Birth of Acadie

Pierre Dugua de Mons (c. 1558-1628)

In 1603, explorer Pierre Dugua de Mons was granted the title of lieutenant general of « des côtes, terres et confins de l'Acadie, du Canada et autres lieux en Nouvelle-France » (the shores, lands and borders of Acadie, of Canada and of other places in New France) by King Henri IV of France. This title meant that he held exclusive rights to the fur trade on that territory, but also that he was obliged to establish some sixty colonists per year and Christianize the surrounding Aboriginals. De Mons therefore created a trading company which allowed him to amass the necessary funds to start his enterprise. Establishing a first trading post on Sainte-Croix Island in June 1604, de Mons had to move his small colony to Port-Royal in the spring of 1605. Other merchants coveted de Mons' exclusive rights. In 1607 these rights were threatened, and in 1611 they were ceded to Antoinette de Pons, marchioness of Guercheville. De Mons continued to participate in the fur trade in Canada until 1617.
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