Whether they had been deported or not, the Acadians living in Acadie after the Deportation did not have a quiet life. Many Acadians who had remained in Nova Scotia, today's Maritimes, still continued to refuse to take an unconditional oath of allegiance to the British Crown and were consequently forced to leave. Some chose Louisiana, while others opted for Saint-Pierre et Miquelon. In 1767, the Acadians who had chosen those islands had to leave after France, pressured by Great Britain, forced them to do so. The majority of those who were sent away chose to live in France and the others returned to Nova Scotia. When they arrived in what is today's Maritimes, Acadians had no property rights, a part from a few exceptions. Many occupied lands to which the colonial administration considered they had no rights and were driven off when these lands were purchased. The War of American Independence, which brought a massive arrival of Loyalists in the Maritimes, also forced many Acadians to move away. This was the case with those from the region formerly known as Saint-Anne-des-Pays-Bas (today's Fredericton), who would later become the pioneers of Madawaska.